Children are a group of people with a high risk of malnutrition because they are very vulnerable to dehydration and digestive disorders such as diarrhea due to lack of hygiene habits and many times little reserves.
A malnourished child can drag lifelong consequences: poor development of bones and muscles, or neurological deficits.
The child will often take wrong decisions and may affect the quality of their food. Among the most common mistakes are:
Little or no breakfast.
School meals rich in flour, fat, sugar and salt (snacks) and low in vitamins and minerals.
Nutritionally inadequate or poorly selected lunches (especially when left to the discretion of the child).
There are critical nutrients for this stage which mentioned below:
Vitamin C and folic acid: Vitamin C participates, along with folic acid, iron absorption and mobilization from body stores. The daily requirement of vitamin C gradually increase from 25 to 30 mg / day at the beginning of school age up to 60 mg / day during adolescence.
Vitamin C supplementation would be needed if fresh fruit is not consumed, mainly citrus, hence the importance of consumption in these populations. The requirement of folic acid is 150 mg / day at school age for both sexes and adolescence are increased up to 200 mg / day.
Vitamin A also has been shown that vitamin requirements increase significantly in accelerated growth phase and its absorption is favored by the presence of fat, protein and vitamin E.
Several studies have shown that a percentage nothing Teen negligible consumption presents a deficit, possibly due to low consumption of foods rich in this vitamin. A strict vitamin deficiency of this vitamin is a result of malnutrition own underdeveloped countries.
Zinc: The importance of zinc in nutrition increased since a zinc deficiency syndrome in adolescent males, characterized by growth retardation, hypogonadism and taste disturbance was discovered.
It is further suspected that minor deficiencies may be responsible for growth hypo- boxes, no other symptoms, since in animal experiments, this is the first sign that appears deficiency.
It is therefore important to ensure adequate intake of zinc during adolescence, 15 mg / day in men and 12 mg / day in women. Greater than 150 mg / day intake is bad for health. The main dietary sources of zinc are of animal origin (red meat, seafood, eggs and milk).
Calcium: Calcium plays a fundamental role in the process of bone mineralization and its maintenance. Calcium needs at school age are estimated at 800 mg / day. In adolescence, significantly increases the calcium binding by the (150 mg to 300 mg / day), which is a necessary calcium intake between 1200 to 1500 mg / day.
All these nutrients plus other equally important how they work together to form a protective shield for the body and strengthening the immune system.
Children look for their food and drinks fortified with these nutrients and make sure that with a varied diet as balanced as possible.